What is Planetary Retrograde ? Its impact in an individual’s life

  • September 20, 2017
  • By : Admin


Retrograde Planets

The planets function as magnetic energies, radiating or absorbing energy according to their polarity. Through the study of them, and of their transits, we can help to observe the different ways in which each human being can take advantage of these energies.

The retrograde planets do not work in the same way, and if we try to understand them as if they were direct, we can do little to help our consultants. The retrograde planets work energetically in three phases that are:

  • Living the future.
  • Have the feeling of having lived it.
  • Repeat the past.

The first two phases happen too internally so that they can be registered by the astrologer, the third phase is the easiest to be noticed, and from it, to work with the consultant. Not only do retrograde planets lead the individual to the nearer past through repetitions, they also lead him to times and past life experiences. It is as if there were parallel times in the person, and lived different experiences.

While the direct energies are going to live in the present, the retrograde ones coexist with the same ones but from times past. A retrograde planet takes the energy of the sign in which it is, and directs this energy to the past, reliving the experiences already lived in other incarnations because they were not satisfactory or because they were not finished, and the house in which it is said Energy, will be the area of ​​experimentation of the same.

The retrograde planets also show us the need for connection that the individual has with the spiritual world. Most individuals possess at least one retrograde planet, but we can find more, up to eight, and more retrograde, greater need to connect with the spiritual has the individual, and greater will be their temporary displacement.


Retrograde Mercury

Mercury retrograde represents the conscious mind of the individual capturing the ideas from past times. Usually the individual does not realize it, but he observes that others do not interpret it, this happens because he does not know how to transmit everything he knows in a way that is understandable to others. It pays more attention to form than depth of knowledge.In general you will feel misunderstood, so you will try to get in touch with others.

Its retrograde process allows it to have a good concentration, which makes it a good student. In the area of ​​sexuality, communication with the opposite sex is difficult. His major problems will be revealed in the links, since the permanent going to the past, makes it relate the present links with the old, and this will interfere in their normal relations. The advice will be to focus your attention on reality, on the present.


Venus Retrograde

Venus represents the affections, the love, and for that it will represent the repetition of loves of the past, that is to say that it permanently feels the pain of the memory of the effective frustrations of the past.He has a tendency to repeat effective stories in which he will be deceived or hurt, because when he seeks, for fear, not to repeat the pain of other stories, he will fall into them, and many times he will leave the loved one without realizing that he loves him Deeply, and will do so to avoid being left by the other, and then will suffer in silence for the loss.

You will live each story as if it were the old one, and therefore it will be very difficult to live your effective present.He will suspect everyone who says he loves him. He will tend to remain alone with his ideal affections, and will have a tendency toward homosexuality, although it is difficult for him to practice and assume.(It should be clarified that the human being is born bisexual and defines his sexuality during his childhood and per-teaching, as is explained in Freudian theory, and we are speaking, in this particular case, of a tendency resulting from effective repression towards the other sex , Not an affirmation of such homosexuality.)

The advice for these individuals is to deepen their effective frustrations, to observe that they need to cleanse their past in order to be able to relate in the present.


Mars Retrograde

Mars represents male sexual energy, willpower, action.In the retrograde position, everyday actions are a recreation of the past, the individual will try to reproduce in this life the links and actions that were satisfactory to him in previous incarnations, and for that reason, he will try to assign to the people with whom he interrelates, figures Or characters no longer exist.

All this will cause him to try to induce those around him, to act as if they were those others he claims to bring from the past.Its energy center moves to the past, to the place where its strength was most powerful, and reacts today, as if it were the response to the actions generated in that yesterday.

Generally there are grudges (from rage, revenge, etc.) that come from the past, which weigh heavily in this incarnation.Their sexuality is going to be difficult because they will react to the sexual stimuli, taking as parameters customs or antiquated reactions. We can advise who has this configuration, to be attentive, for their reactions to be thought, to do a work of observation so that the reactions are in accordance with the events that originate them.


Jupiter Retrograde

Jupiter represents the inner order, and in the retrogradation position, we are going to meet individuals who live on an ethics, morals, and customs that, for the rest of society, will be “out of season”. The individual with this position will develop an own value system that will be lagged in time.

He will firmly adhere to spiritual and religious principles, and his greatest problem will be to judge others with laws that others will not understand, and the rules he will impose on his surroundings will be difficult to apply.
He will seek freedom, but for this he must avoid his internal duality past-present.

Observing the real world, the horticultural rules of the present, adapting to them without losing their own, and fundamentally not trying to convince anyone of them, will be the best advice for this planetary position.


Saturn Retrograde

Saturn, by its structure, by its sense of time, makes that retro gradation indicates us continuity Cormack. The individual will show prudence, seriousness, cost, and this has to do with the need to complete what remained pending in previous lives.

In this position we find the teacher, the one who will help the less understood to overcome those obstacles that he has already transcended.
The process of finding the way is slow but sure, and Saturn is the most comfortable planet in retro gradation.The advice will be to advise the individual to investigate in his own inner world, since there he will find the way of his own wisdom.


Uranus Retrograde

Uranus’ retrogadation shows us the rebellion against everything that is bandages. It shows us the pioneers of the future.It gives a great internal variability and this leads him to make incomprehensible decisions for the opposite.

Your intuition is very strong because it is permanently supported by the memories of the past. We must help him to understand that being different, original, is really the path that leads to freedom.


Neptune Retrograde

Neptune in retrogradation shows the need to separate the reality of his ideas with the apparent of his unsatisfied fantasies. In this position is a world of dreams, old dreams that do not match the reality of today. The brightness, the appearance, can blind the individual, and the sensation of success make him dizzy, since they are part of his old fantasies. Helping you to leverage your imagination to create a better world may be the best advice.


Retrograde Pluto

Retrograde Pluto represents the struggle of humanity as a personal struggle. The individual feels the impatience of the universal consciousness, and tries to observe the world thinking that humanity must be transformed but will rely on this observation in past ideals, and this will lead him to connect deeply with the spiritual, and his feeling will be the Of “being in the world without feeling part of it”. The advice to give will be for the individual to use his inner transforming power as the motor for his self-transformation.


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Astral Houses and their significance

  • August 20, 2017
  • By : Admin


In the previous articles, I have tried to make a synthetic explanation of the constellar energies, of the signs, in this last part, I will try to make a synthesis of stars and astral houses. I must make it clear that the representations that I expose in this article, as I did in the previous one, are just some of the different meanings that the astrologer has for his task, since each of the astral and astral houses has other deeper meanings Which can not be summarized in a note, since you can write a book of each of the astrological signs, stars and houses.

The Astros are the ones that reflect the constellar energies, and they resonate in the different internal and external aspects of a human being. Taking only the most significant aspects of each of them we will see:

To  SUN , shows the character, the inner self.

S  LUNA , the image, the humor.

D  MERCURY , thought, intelligence.

F  VENUS , affection, feeling

G  MARS , will, action.

H  JUPITER , justice, internal order.

J  SATURN , the structure, the limits.

K  URANUS , intuition, expansion.

L  NEPTUNE , inspiration, imagination.

 PLUTON , transmutation, change.


The Astral Houses, are the concrete, real areas, where the constellar and astral energies materialize. Taking the most significant of them, we can see:

House I , also called Ascendant, shows us the personality, the physical body.

House II , shows the needs of the individual.

House III, in it we see the form of communication of the person.

House IV , there we will observe his immediate ties, his family.

House V , shows creativity.

House VI , in it we see the health, its labor necessities.

House VII , we will observe your complements, your partner.

House VIII , there we will see the fears of the person, their sexuality.


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What are the various Zodiac Signs and which one do I belong to ?

  • July 20, 2017
  • By : Admin


The signs of the zodiac show us energetic archetypes that we designate with the name of the twelve zodiacal constellations that are that apparently travels the Sun in its annual trajectory. Apparently, because in reality the Earth revolves around the Sun, and in observation it seems the opposite. These twelve archetypes are going to indicate different ways of expressing energy namely:

Q  Aries , the Ram, is going to express itself from the initiative, the impulse, the force, the driving, from the being.

W  Taurus , the Bull, will do it from concretion, work, conservation, productivity, from having.

E  Gemini , the Twins, is going to express itself from the intellect, the perception, the understanding, the explanation, from the communication.

r Cancer , the Crab, we will show their impressiveness, his memories, his imagination, from the feel.

T  Leo , the Lion, will do so from his sovereignty, his perfection, his direction, his creativity, from the will.

And  Virgo , the Virgin, will express its energy from innocence, analysis, selection, criticism, from discrimination.

U  Libra , the Scale, will do it from equanimity, oden, kindness, harmony, understanding, from the complement.

I  Scorpio , the Scorpion, will express it from its possibility of renewal, transformation, strategy, from the transmutation.

Or Sagittarius , the Archer, is going to express his energy from the culture, the discernment, the education, from the realization, the seeing.

P  Capricorn , the Goat, will do it from the realization, the ambition, the practicality, from the doing.

J  Aquarius , the Water Bearer, is going to express itself from innovation, instruction, invention, fraternization, from knowledge.

N  Pisces , the Fish, will do it from universalization, abstraction, trust, inspiration, service, from faith, to believing.

These twelve energies serve as a basis for the energetic study of a person, and to see how the other astrological aspects work in a natal chart, in the next article I will conclude this series of notes with the development of astrological stars and houses.


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What is my Astro Sign ? How to determine it ?

  • June 20, 2017
  • By : Admin

This question is very frequent to hear it in the astrological interviews, due to the enormous confusion generated by the horoscopes of newspapers and magazines. Firstly, because the dates in the publications generally do not coincide with reality, since they vary each year because the calendar we use is imperfect because the Earth takes 365 days approximately 5 hours to go around the Sun, This makes it necessary to add 1 day every 4 years.

Secondly, we must take into account the place and time of birth, and finally, because the sun sign is not the one that indicates the main characteristics of a human being, but is a component of it. It is common for people to disbelieve astrology because of the little concrete information that exists about it, And to the great number of people who speak and write on this subject without having the minimum knowledge necessary for it. The first thing we must learn is that the human being is energy, and that the twelve astrological energies that we commonly call signs are integrated into each one of us.

That is to say that we all have the twelve signs of the zodiac within us (at the energetic level) but we express them differently, therefore, each one of us is a different being. This is the reason why the astrological study is absolutely personal, and it is dangerous to make generalizations based on one or another sign of the zodiac.

I will try, as simply as possible, to explain how these energies work, and how they help us in our self-knowledge. First we consider the signs of the zodiac, They show us twelve different energetic archetypes, which will explain to us how each internal and external area of ​​our life works. Then we have the stars, who are going to tell us how those energies come to us, and what are the inner areas that resonate with those energies.

Finally we have the houses or sectors, which will indicate the external forms of expression of these energies. With all this and some more topics that are beyond the possibility of this note, it begins to elaborate a personal astrological study. And as if all this were not enough, we also have to take into account the family, the country, the society, the culture, in which the existence of the consultant develops.

This shows that there are practically no two people exactly alike, even if they were born the same day, at the same time, And in the same city, since there are always family, cultural, social, religious differences. In the next articles I will develop the different variables given by signs, stars and astrological houses.

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Oracle of the Earth: symbolic classification of the signs of the zodiac

  • March 23, 2017
  • By : Admin


Friends astrologers, I would like to consult with you the next topic. It is a symbolic classification of the signs of the zodiac based on certain logical and descriptive categories. I explain For several years now I have been designing and designing an Earth Oracle , an oracle of letters with images that describe life on Earth. The idea is to make an open-numbered oracle (you can add new letters into groups or families of already defined letters) that people can download and print for their personal use.

It can be used for lucid, pedagogical, or “reading” and consultation purposes, as is done with the tarot. I have finished the general design of the letters and I am in search of public domain or free copyright images that I can use for the design of the cards (with the only condition that it is not commercialized). According to the last list generated,

The eleven letter families of the Oracle of Earth are:

  •  WATER
  •  AIR
  • FIRE
  • WOOD

Water, Air, Fire, Wood, Metal and Earth are the classic elements of nature. The Heaven family includes celestial symbols and everything that has to do with the universe. Big Brothers is a family of letters about the human being, and Friars Minor is about animals.

The Kingdom Plantar family touches on the vegetable kingdom. The Carats Blanca family is a special family of letters that have no picture or drawing but symbols and icons, including the eight trig rams of the I Chung.

All the letters have under the name four icons that represent a symbolic formula that defines to the image of the letter. These icons are of my creation and are a symbolic system of descriptive logical categories. In the Cielo family I included twelve letters with the signs of the zodiac and what I would like to know from other astrologers is how they would classify each of these signs according to this system of icons of the Earth Oracle .


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Real Gemini Sign Effects

  • January 10, 2017
  • By : Admin


Gemini is the third sign of the zodiac, its name means twins, and according to the Greeks, Jupiter in the form of a swan fell in love with Leda, a mortal, and with it conceived the twins. Pollux was immortal and deadly beaver. Having been killed Castor at the site of Sparta, Pollux asked his father to revive him, offering him half of his own life.Before such an example of brotherly love, he placed them embraced in the sky.

Gemini an energy is an energy of air that is represented in the field of the mental, which gives it an intellectual character, very intuitive, rational, and a dual conception of reality, has a mutable movement, which leads it to have Much adaptation to the changes, he is extroverted, he lives in a state of curiosity and permanent movement.

Communicating, Learning, traveling, are important activities for this energy. He has a great intellectual capacity, a lot of perception, is reflective, has discernment, research capacity, is very communicative, flexible, contradictory, and intellectualizes everything in life. Its functioning leads it to observe reality, to discern, to understand it, and to explain it.

we will find among the Gemini ans people who are engaged in the different areas of commerce, communication, advertising, teaching, and literature.
The characteristics that appear in the denser energy of Geminis, and that must be worked from this sign are: versatility, indecision, frivolity, and puerility.

From the anatomical, we can say that Gemini governs the trachea, larynx, thyroid, shoulders, arms, hands, and thymus. In the earthly world, Geminis is governed by the energy of Mercury, which is the representative of thought, of the mind, so those born under this sign develop a great need to express their thinking, and to work the concrete – abstract duality of it.

Here the deadly – immortal mythical duality appears strongly; The immortal part that says “there is no rush, I have all the time in the world”, and the deadly part that says “hurry up that your time is running out”. The Gemini an myth is represented by the third work of Hercules. The job consisted in looking for the Tree of the golden apples of the Hebrides.

Everyone wanted to find this tree, but its place was unknown, and it was guarded by three beautiful maidens who at the same time were looked after by a dragon with a hundred heads. In addition he had to fulfill five tests along the way.The first was the frustration of not finding the way, the second to fight with Ante, a huge snake that beat him many times until he could with her, the third was to be deceived and weakened by Bus iris,

who kept him tied for a year until Who became aware of the deception and overcame the false teacher, the fourth was to release Prometheus from its chains, and the fifth was to free the giant Atlas from the heavy burden of sustaining the world, which he did with the fifth test and appeared front To him the prize sought, the apples of gold.The Gemini must face the five tests of this work in his growth path, he must first learn to have patience to achieve goals, and overcome the frustration of error,

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School of Astrological Learning

  • April 12, 2016
  • By : Admin


Astrological School The study of this discipline must be done in a gradual and methodical way.The Astrological School, has divided the learning in three years. The first year, called information and learning, is divided into three modules of 12 classes each, in which most of the elements necessary for the preparation and interpretation of a natal chart are learned.

We study signs, stars, houses, as a letter is manually raised, the elements and relationships necessary for the interpretation of it. The second year, called deepening, also divided into three modules of 12 classes each, deepens the study of the elements of the chart, and learn to perform all complementary astrological studies such as solar revolution, dynasty, Letter composed, karmic, etc.

These two years have group or individual classes. The third year, called professionalization, has a module of 12 classes, which covers the study of astrological psychology, fixed stars and professional management of interviews, and then 24 individual classes of evaluation, and practical work of students with Consultants.

At the end of this year, a certificate of aptitude is given that enables him to work professionally and professionally. And then 24 individual assessment classes, and practical assignments of students with consultants. At the end of this year, a certificate of aptitude is given that enables him to work professionally and professionally. And then 24 individual assessment classes, and practical assignments of students with consultants. At the end of this year, a certificate of aptitude is given that enables him to work professionally and professionally.

Distance Education Online Since 1999, a new way of learning Humanist Astrology and Psycho-pathology begins, for all those who have a PC, Internet connection, and an e-mail box. This new way of learning is a course that consists of three independent years for the entire course, and in each year, 3 modules composed of 10 classes each, between theory and practice.

The student must complete each module with re elaboration and evaluation classes. The study material will be provided by the school, as well as all practical work. In addition it will be available to the students, to evacuate doubts or consultations, an e-mail to connect, and a chat in ice or man with the same purpose. Each year the student receives a certificate of studies, and may or may not follow the next level according to their learning needs.

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  • July 10, 2015
  • By : Admin


New Moon in Aries moon start, which invites us to be fiery, enthusiastic, as far as our creativity is at mental, manual or artistic level. To enjoy our innate gifts, to review our goals and objectives for analysis afterwards if we need to re-use them. It is indicated to handle our finances with seriousness on everything that comes from our professional or public activity

.Day to avoid surgeries of the face, head and eyes.On March 27 the Globalists celebrate the Lunar New Year. They call for unity despite the individual ways, to infuse the seed of unity and respect. Kabbalah is a discipline and esoteric school of thought related to the Essene and Judaism, which uses various methods to analyze the Torah, sacred text of the Jews, which Christians call the Pentateuch and which represents the first five books of the bible.

From the 29th to the 31st of March the moon enters Taurus of the earth element, to avoid surgery in the throat, extractions of dental pieces. Days to lead, dialogue, exchange ideas and undertake new, innovative and informal activities with our friends and groups of people with whom we interact, continue to adjust our goals and objectives in the matters we are doing or what we have in mind.

On March 31 the asteroid Callas enters the sign of Aries and will transit through this sign until June 27 of the currents. Its transit to all favors us because it gives us the ability to solve problems, find quick answers, what is happening to us internally or externally or in any activity we do, we will also have the capacity to be innovative and take initiative in

What we want to do.From March 31 to April 2, the moon enters the sign of Gemini of the air element, avoiding possible surgeries of the airways, bronchi, shoulders, arms and hands. Days to think before acting, is facilitated to lead projects and professional activities or public life, It is an appropriate time to analyze if the change of residence of country is convenient and if you travel abroad do not be fooled by who promises the Keys of the sky and if you go for a job or work activity, investigate the proposal to avoid further headaches.

On April 1, Mercury enters Taurus and will be direct until April 8th that is retrograded in this sign until April 20 and then goes back and enters the sign of Aries until May 2 that is put directly in this sign.When Mercury gets retrograde the activities or issues slow down and are days when they serve to analyze, evaluate, reorganize, restructure, rethink, not to make decisions or actions in a hurry, and to start in Taurus everything that it has To do with money, wealth or fortune, which we have acquired for work, business, profession or effort.

Analyze the gains or losses, what is related to our money, the shared finances the money or the wealth that comes from the husband or wife, the procedures, policies, the intimate life. And when I return to the sign of Aries aspects to analyze is our character, personality, vitality, physical appearance, and everything concerning marriage, spouse and partner, contracts and associations of all kinds,

New moon in Aries of the element fire to ask for, decree, visualize, a new beginning for our life, to have courage, to be authentic, to have firmness and independence, to be frank, honest and autonomous, self-confidence, leadership, Anger, vanity, impatience. And with regard to healing health in the areas of influence or ruled by Aries, cure acne, eyes, face, scalp, headaches and dizziness. After six hours of the beginning of the new moon draw the check of prosperity and fortune.

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  • June 12, 2014
  • By : Admin


RAHULA (Associated with Scorpio)

Rahula, a demonic entity who slipped into the kingdom of the gods from a distant planet and sneaked an elixir of immortality, received as a punishment for its acts a deformed aspect. (…)

The dynamic aspect of Rahula in a cosmic fire aura increases thanks to its main weapon: an arch formed with a poisonous viper.

Rahula and other Dharmapalas, protective Buddhist deities, protect the mind from false certainties. By inviting us to participate in a world of shining shadows, these angry energies are transformed into forces of transformation. The reference to these emanations of the most intimate psyche allows us to bring to light Jung’s statement, which argued that “Enlightenment does not consist in imagining luminous figures, but in being aware of the darkness.” (…)

Rahula can be a dangerous adversary, a cause of celestial suffering. If we allow it to enter our consciousness, in spite of everything, this same relentless force can be reversed and forced to work for us.

Buddhist compassion, in its absolute form, is unshakable. It makes its way, implacable, between the illusions and selfish hopes, which, like the tonic that Rahula took, deform our natural state. In the celestial realm of the peaceful and wrathful deities, we have no escape from our own nature: each icon is a mirror of our most intimate energies.

Rahula does not dwell on the outer margins of the galaxy, but within the collective unconscious of humanity. The inner search for the sources of its mystical form sheds light on the shadows and extends to the infinite the scope of our vision.


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The Importance of Mars in our Birth Chart

  • June 12, 2014
  • By : Admin


Can this warrior fight for or against our welfare simultaneously? According to Isabel Hickey the Martian energy is comparable to that of a burning fire.
Used properly and in the right place is extremely useful, providing us with light, heat, shelter, energy, etc., but used out of place and at the wrong time the fire can cause disasters.

Fire itself is neither good nor bad, but when you can not handle it yourself, it can be dangerous. This confirms that all natural energies are neutral.  Piero Ferrucci in his book “What we may be” indicates that natural energies, sun, wind, water, atom, etc., can prevent or cause disasters.

In the same way Mars is the most obvious astrological representative of aggressiveness and we all have Mars somewhere in our birth chart.
Let us say, then, that we are all born with innate aggressive impulses.
Aggressiveness is an innate impulse of our biological structure, just as the sexual impulse is an essential part of our instinctive human equipment.

Astrologers have always known that aggressiveness and sexuality are closely linked, something that science discovered not too long ago.It is quite common that a fight between lovers ends in an orgasm and that a sexual relationship becomes a dispute. What is it then that gives us Mars? We owe the will to cultivate or deploy what we are and what we can become.When this desire to grow, progress and advance is blocked, (by other parts of our own nature or by the action of other people), it becomes anger.

Dane Rudhyar has once expressed that: “Mars is the force that moves the seed to germinate.”Where Mars is operating on the chart is where you can exercise this healthy form of aggressiveness.Mars urges us to act in ways that affirm our identity and purpose, and yet can give rise to unpleasant forms of behavior.This disparate expression of aggressive energy is clearly seen in mythology, When we analyze the very different way in which the Greeks and the Romans presented to the god Mars.

The Greek Ares

Ares was the god of war. The Greeks hated him, considering it as a mixture of pity, terror, and derision.As it was associated with blind courage, murderous fury and slaughter, his image was that of a swagger and a brute.In spite of this the Greeks represented him as a loser in most of the fighting he fought, of which he limped, defeated and humiliated.

It is worth comparing Ares with Athena (his sister), both are trapped in an archetypal sibling rivalry. Legend has it that Athena is already an adult, from the head of Zeus, Heras is enraged to know that Zeus has had a daughter without his participation, and decides to have a child without Zeus intervene.
Therefore Ares is the son of revenge and revenge, Is the product of anger accumulated in the body of Heras.

This is comparable with the anger that we store in our body and that from time to time explodes in an uncontrollable way.As Mars is able to express itself in the style of Ares, it is important that we pay attention to the definition of Roberto Assagioli (Founder of Psychosynthesis): “Aggressiveness is a blind impulse towards self-affirmation” ie, even if it is blind, In aggressiveness there is an element of affirmation of ourselves.

It also says that it is a blind impulse “towards the expression of all elements of one’s being,” in other words, it is undifferentiated and uncontrolled; Simultaneously puts the body, feelings and mind at stake.It acts “without the slightest choice or discrimination”, That is to say that it has no sense of opportunity, place or measure.

It occurs “without any concern for consequences,” when this anger comes out, there is no sense of proportion, or unease about the harm it can do to others. And when exploding “without consideration for others” can be triggered on friends or loved ones who at other times have been loyal, kind and helpful. The Roman Mars Kind and helpful. The Roman Mars Kind and helpful.

The Roman Mars

In Roman mythology the cult of Mars was more important than Jupiter itself.
It was further believed that Mars had been the father of Romulus, the founder of Rome, and of Remus his twin brother, thus representing one of the principles on which the Republic was founded.

He was also worshiped as a god of agriculture, spring and vegetation. It was associated with fertility, growth, and becoming.

He had two companions, Honos (honor) and Virtus (virtue).

It is honorable to defend one’s ground and virtuous to fulfill one’s destiny.

For them to assert themselves was honorable and virtuous, it meant to be faithful to what they considered to be their own destiny.

Defend your identity and have the courage to cultivate and honor your own nature.Aggressiveness and Healthy Aggression Now let’s look at some examples of aggressive and aggressive manifestations of our basic natural aggressiveness,

1) As protection against attacks.
2) As a positive need for dominance.
3) As a basis for achieving independence.


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